lunes, 24 de enero de 2011

Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is apersonality disorder described as a prolonged disturbance of personality function in a person (generally over the age of eighteen years, although it is also found in adolescents), characterized by depth and variability of moods. The disorder typically involves unusual levels of instability in mood; black and white thinking, or splitting; the disorder often manifests itself in idealization and devaluation episodes, as well as chaotic and unstable interpersonal relationships, self-image, identity, and behavior; as well as a disturbance in the individual's sense of self. In extreme cases, this disturbance in the sense of self can lead to periods of dissociation.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Personality disorders are chronic patterns of behavior that impair relationships and work. The cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. People with BPD are impulsive in areas that have a potential for self-harm, such as drug use, drinking, and otherrisk-taking behaviors.

Risk factors for BPD include abandonment issues in childhood or adolescence, sexualabuse, disrupted family life, and poor communication within the family. This personality disorder tends to occur more often in women and among hospitalized psychiatric patients.

Symptoms

Relationships with others are intense and unstable, swinging wildly from love to hate and back again. People with BPD will engage in frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.

BPD patients may also have uncertainties about their identity or self-image. They tend to see things in terms of extremes, either all good or all bad. Such people also typically view themselves as victims of circumstance and take little responsibility for themselves or their problems.

Other symptoms include:

  • Frequent displays of inappropriate anger
  • Recurrent suicidal gestures such as wrist cutting, overdosing, or self-mutilation
  • Feelings of emptiness and boredom
  • Intolerance of being alone
  • Impulsiveness with money, substance abuse, sexual relationships, binge eating, or shoplifting

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